Increasing Ignition during loading of petcoke at the port of Amuay


Petcoke (which stands for petroleum coke) is a byproduct of the oil refinery coking process that produces low-cost fuel, often with a high sulphur content. Petcoke may also be known as green delayed coke, sponge coke, needle coke, delayed coke or raw coke-fuel grade.

 

Petcoke is over 90 percent carbon and emits 5 to 10% more carbon dioxide (CO2) than coal on a per-unit-of-energy basis when it is burned. As petcoke has a higher energy content, petcoke emits between 30 and 80 percent more CO2 than coal per unit of weight.The differences between Coal and Coke in CO2 production per unit energy produced are small and depend upon the moisture in the coal (increases the CO2 per unit energy -- Heat of combustion) and volatile hydrocarbon in coal and coke (decrease the CO2 per unit energy). This means that the product has selfheating hazards and should be treated properly before loading, when on board and during shipment.

 

Typical petroleum coke characteristics:

Total Moisture (as received basis) 8 to 13%

Ash (dry basis) 0.15 to 4.5%

Volatile Matter (dry basis) 8.0 to 13.5%

Sulfur (dry basis) 5.7 to 6.8%

HGI (dry basis) 42 to 60

Btu/lb (dry basis) 14,500 to 15,500

 

In Venezuela these cargoes can be found at the port of Jose (see our circular 007) and the port of Amuay. We´ve recently noticed that matter if self heating and ignition have taken place during loading of cargo and with the cargo already on board.

 

As a general advice, when the cargo is loaded in a cargo space over a tank containing fuel or other material having a flashpoint under 93 degree C, the cargo having a temperature of 59 degree C or higher shall not be loaded in the cargo space, unless part of the cargo having a temperature 44 degree C or lower is loaded in lawyer of at least 0.6 m thickness throughout the cargo space prior to load the cargo having a temperature of 59 degree C or higher.

 

When the cargo having a temperature of 55 degree C or higher is loaded in accordance with the above requirement and thickness of the layer of the cargo to be loaded is bigger than 1.5 m the cargo shall first be loaded within a layer, the thickness of which is between 0.6 m and 1.0 m.

 

In order to reduce the cargo temperature, the terminal may use water to wash the cargo but the Vessel must be aware of the MARPOL regulations on pullution regarding this topic. All actions to reduce the cargo temperature before and during loading must be addressed to the terminal.

 

Cargo hold ventilation is also advised with favourable weather, in case there´s raining, the cargo holds should be close. In case the crew notices that the cargo temperature excees 60 degrees C, they should contact their P&I correspondent inmediatelty so proper actions may be taken to reduce fire risk on board.

 

According to the IMSBC code, this cargo is non-combustible or has a low fire-risk, however, the codes defines it as MHB (Materials hazardous only in bulk). For which a close monitoring of the cargo must be kept during loading, loading survey for petcoke is advised as well.

 

Should you have any question about this or any other matter, please don’t hesitate on contacting us. In case you choose to share this information, please don’t forget to credit our company.

 

Carlos Carrasco

Operations Manager

Venepandi, C.A.

 

Oil pollution in Maracaibo lake

Most Vessel calling at Maracaibo lake and mainly those calling at PDVSA´s terminal there are encountering with an oil firm that ins´t being controlled by the Terminal and that is causing ship´s hulls to get polluted with black oil.

Threats to security within Venezuelan territory

Given the current violent crime situation in Venezuela which reached this week the highest pike with the murder of miss Venezuela 2004 and her Irish husband, we kindly invite club´s and members to take a look on this circular and its content in order to ensure safety of crew members and personal coming to the country for business.

Possible street riots during local elections in Venezuela

You probably are aware about the upcoming local authorities elections to take place this Sunday December 8th, 2013. To which, without creating any kind of panic, we recommend that if there are vessels docked in Venezuelan ports that day and Monday, the crew does not go to shore, as it is presumed the remote possibility of armed street riots depending on results.

Special powers given to the president will potentially increase the imports

Venezuela's National Assembly has given final approval to special powers for President Nicolas Maduro. Under the enabling act given by the assembly President Maduro will be able to govern by rule without consulting Congress for 12 months.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7